Nutrition supplement onix is intended as nutritional support for patients with cancer.
Vitamins are essential for health and are needed in various biochemical and physiological processes of the body. Vitamins are divided into soluble in fats(A, D, E and K) and water-soluble (C and vitamin B groups). Due to numerous studies on vitamins and their role in helpingand in the treatment of cancer that was published recent ly, it is essential that all scientific information be collected in single, transparent arti cle that will clearly identify the vitamins and minerals that help with this serious illness. To this end, we at Medilek collected a lot of data from high quality cli nical research on the most promising vitamins and minerals. We then took this information into account when developing the product called Onix.
Vitamin A participates in a wide range of biological activities, such as reproduction, embryogenesis, growth, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, vision, bone formation, metabolism, haematopoiesis and in many immune processes. Given the great importance of the mechanisms with which vitamin A and retinoids work at the cellular level, their use in the prevention and treatment of cancer has already triggered numerous studies. Thus, for example, Wolbach and Howe (1), and later also Lasnitzki (2) and Logan (3) proved the important role of vitamin A and retinoids in the oncogenesis of many tissues. Lotan (4) showed with in vitro and in vivo study that these compounds can, in various ways affect the growth of malignant cells, by preparing growth, apoptosis and redifering into different cellslines. We know that the homeostasis of vitamin A and retinoids changes in many types of tumors, including leukemia, breast cancer, skin, mouth, prostate and cervical carcinoma. A poor conversion of retinol to retinoic acid is found in cell lines of breast cancer, and recently, based on Williams et al. (5), the same results are shown in cancerous ovarian cells. These results support the hypothesis that the metabolism of vitamin A contributes to ovarian oncogenesis.
B vitamin complex contains several water-soluble vitamins: B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid) and B12 cobalamin). Group B vitamins maintain and increase metabolic rate, maintain muscle tone, provide a good skin condition, improve the functions of the nervous and immune system and stimulate cell growth and division. A number of epidemiological studies have shown that an appropriate input of group B vitamins is important for the prevention of breast cancer. A high quality study was carried out by Zhang et al. (6), who studied the ratio of folate, vitamin B6 to vitamin B12, and the risk of breast cancer, which also took into account the consumption of alcohol because it changes the normal folate metabolism in many ways. The authors concluded that high levels of folate in plasma and possibly vitamin B6 can reduce the risk of developing this pathology, especially in women with a higher risk of developing breast cancer due to increased alcohol consumption. Low folate is also associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal cancer, including gastric cancer. Krumdieck (7) also successfully demonstrated the hypothesis of epithelial forms of cancer, such as cervical cancer, lung cancer and bladder cancer, which may be due to folic acid deficiency, vitamin B12 and other vitamins of group B.
Vitamin C is a water soluble antioxidant, which is present in plants and certain animals. Unlike most mammals, humans do not have the ability to synthesize this nutrient endogenously and must therefore obtain it through nutrition and nutritional supplements. Vitamin C is one of the most well-known natural medicines that is shown by studies to also be effective in the treatment of cancer. Not only does it kill tumor cells – patients who are receiving it are more likely to tolerate chemotherapy and have fewer side effects. Taking into account the important characteristics of vitamin C, several studies have been carried out that show the benefit of supplementing vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Unfortunately, clinical practice is still controversial, although studies have shown that the patients with cancer. Their results were very promising in the use of vitamin in the treatment of cancer. Verrax and Calderon (8) have shown that high vitamin C doses have positive anti-cancer effects in studies that have been performed both in vitro and in vivo. Several lines of cancer cells that have been exposed to high doses of vitamin C over 2 hours have been used. The pharmacological concentrations of vitamin C have been found to destroy these high-efficiency tuberculosis cells (EC50 in the range of 3 to 7 mM). Yeom et al. have also carried out a study in vivo (9) to test the carcinostatic effects of vitamin C in mice with sarcoma cells. The survival rate increased by 20% in the group receiving high concentrations of vitamin C versus the control group. These results have shown that high concentrations of vitamin C can inhibit angiogenesis in cancer cells. A study on the efficacy of vitamin C as a cancer product was also performed in 27 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (10). They all were all diagnosed with the disease only when it was already in the stages three or four. All patients were treated with chemotherapy (paclitaxel or carboplatin), while for half the patients, high doses of vitamin C were added to the chemotherapy. Tumors in those receiving vitamin C decreased and the chemotherapy was more easily tolerated by the patients. High doses of vitamin C were not toxic to healthy cells and did not cause undesirable changes in the kidneys, liver and spleen. And how does vitamin C affect cancer cells? “Experiments on tumor models and on cancerous cells in laboratory animals have shown that vitamin C results in the formation of hydrogen peroxide in an intercellular space that damages the DNA of cancer cells and inhibits their growth. We also noticed that vitamin C improved the effect of chemotherapy,” said one of the authors of the research dr. Jeanne Drisko of the University of Kansas.
Epidemiological studies prove (11) that as much as 40-75% of the population is in vitamin D deficiency, and during the period when the sun’s rays shine on Earth at a sharp angle, from October to April, this estimate should go up to 90% of the healthy population. Many experts therefore believe that we can talk about the epidemic and a pandemic of vitamin D deficiency. Many studies have shown that there is a strong link between vitamin D and the various, as well as most common forms of cancer (cancer of the breast, bowel cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, cancer pancreas, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer …) (12). Theories that link vitamin D deficiency to cancer have been tested and confirmed in more than 257 epidemiological studies. One study in 2011 (13) has shown not only that low levels of vitamin D are associated with breast cancer, but that they can also be associated with the risk of developing the most aggressive forms of cancer. Researchers at the University of Rochester Medical Center have tested the level of vitamin D in 155 breast cancer patients in the months before or after surgery to treat cancer. They found that suboptimal levels of vitamin D are associated with the presence of biological markers associated with more aggressive types of tumors. A completely new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (14) in October 2015 has shown that vitamin D3 prevents the development of breast cancer, which has its cause in the action of the estrogen hormone. The study was carried out on more than 57,000 postmenopausal women who received replacement hormone therapy and showed that the consumption of vitamin D reduced the risk of breast cancer by 26%.
In the last two decades, scientists have focused heavily on the role of vitamin E in cancer and have undergone numerous studies. It has been established that vitamin E may be an important protective agent against lung cancer, as shown by Wang X and Quinn PJ (15, 16). These studies have shown that vitamin E reduces cell proliferation in in vitro and in vivo research. In order to determine the relationship between vitamin E and the risk of liver cancer, researchers at the University of Shanghai have tested 132,837 volunteers (17). In this way, they acquired data on an individual’s eating habits, using validated questionnaires on the nutritional frequency. Participants in the study were studied in terms of food quality and vitamin E content in it, and vitamin E supplements. They compared the risk of liver cancer in the high and low-intake group of the vitamin E. The researchers say that a clear link exists between the intake of vitamin E and the risk of hepatic cancer. The higher intake of Vitamin E with nutrition and vitamin supplements was in both cases associated with a lower risk of developing liver cancer, which is one of the most common types of cancer.
Microelement selen fulfills many vital tasks. Today, it also has the reputation of potentially powerful weapons against cancer and other diseases. It comes out of soil and if there is too little selenium in it, it is not enough to get it with the food that grows in such soil. In the human body, most selenium is located in the kidneys, liver, spleen, pancreas and testes. Selenium in the body acts as an antioxidant and prevents free radicals that damage the molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Selenium is an integral part of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase enzyme that protects cells against harmful substances from the environment and food. In April 2013, in the United States, the United States Agency for Research on Cancer (AACR), for the first time, presented a study confirming the link between the content of selenium and cancer (33). It has been found that higher selenium concentrations are associated with a reduction in the risk of developing and progressing prostate cancer, breast cancer, metastases (in all cases it is more than 60% lower risk). 100 μg of selenium daily already reduces the risk of cancer by 50%. In addition to preventing the disease, selenium has been proven to help slow down the progression of cancer in patients who already have it. According to the Life Extension Foundation (34), the use of selenium during chemotherapy in combination with vitamins A and E reduces the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. The mineral also helps “strengthen the effectiveness of chemotherapy, irradiation and hyperthermia, while at the same time minimizing damage to the patient’s normal cells; which makes the therapy more selective, “says Patrick Quillin in the book Beating Cancer with Nutrition. Dr. Larry Clark of the University of Arizona, in a 1996 study, revealed how effective selenium is as protection against cancer (35). The study involved 1312 elderly people, and showed that the incidence of cancer among those taking 200 micrograms of selenium decreased by 42 percent over a period of seven years per day compared to those taking placebo. According to the Journal of the American Medical Association (36), cancer mortality was almost halved for those who took selenium. While the results of the study confirm that selenium protects against all types of cancer, this is particularly true of prostate, supplements as a help in the treatment of cancer for quite a few steps forward. ” Selenium receives great attention precisely because of its potential role in overcoming cancer. Research at Cornell University and Arizona University (37) found that taking 200 micrograms of selenium per day reduced the number of cases of prostate cancer by 63 percent, bowel cancer by 58 percent, lung cancer by 46 percent, and all cancer deaths by 39 percent. Other studies have confirmed that selenium can help prevent ovarian, cervical, rectal, bladder, esophagus, pancreatic, liver and leukemia. Studies in cancer patients show that in those with low concentrations, selenium in the blood has developed several tumors, and the disease was repeated earlier than in those with higher concentrations.
Mikroelement selen izpolnjuje številne življenjsko pomembne naloge. Danes ima med drugim tudi sloves morebitnega močnega orožja proti raku in drugim boleznim. Izhaja iz zemlje in če je v njej premalo selena, ga premalo dobimo tudi s hrano, ki v tej zemlji raste. V človeškem telesu je največ selena v ledvicah, jetrih, vranici, trebušni slinavki in modih. Selen v telesu deluje kot antioksidant in preprečuje delovanje prostih radikalov, ki škodujejo molekulam deoksiribonukleinske kisline (DNK). Selen je namreč sestavni del antioksidativnega encima glutation peroksidaze, ki varuje celice pred škodljivimi snovmi iz okolja in prehrane. Aprila 2013 so v ZDA na srečanju Ameriške zveze za raziskave raka (AACR) prvič predstavili raziskavo v kateri so potrdili povezavo med vsebnostjo selena in rakom (33). Ugotovili so, da so višje koncentracije selena povezane z zmanjšanjem tveganja za nastanek in napredovanje raka prostate, raka dojk, metastaz (v vseh primerih gre za več kot 60 % nižja tveganja). Že 100 μg selena dnevno zniža tveganje za raka za 50 %. Poleg preprečevanja nastanka bolezni so za selen dokazali, da pomaga upočasniti napredovanje raka pri pacientih, ki ga že imajo. Po mnenju ustanove Life Extension Foundation (34), uporaba selena med kemoterapijo v kombinaciji z vitaminom A in E zmanjša toksičnost kemoterapevtskih zdravil. Mineral poleg tega pomaga “okrepiti učinkovitost kemoterapije, obsevanja in hipertermije, medtem ko istočasno minimizira škodo na pacientovih normalnih celicah; zaradi česar je terapija bolj selektivna,” trdi Patrick Quillin v knjigi Beating Cancer with Nutrition. Dr. Larry Clark z Univerze Arizona je v raziskavi leta 1996 razkril, kako učinkovit je selen kot zaščita pred rakom (35). V študiji je sodelovalo 1312 starostnikov, pokazala pa je, da se je pojavnost raka med tistimi, ki so jemali 200 mikrogramov selena dnevno v obdobju sedmih let zmanjšala za 42 odstotkov v primerjavi s tistimi, ki so jemali placebo. Po navedbah revije Journal of the American Medical Association (36) se je smrtnost zaradi raka pri tistih, ki so jemali selen skoraj prepolovila. Medtem ko rezultati študije potrjujejo, da selen ščiti pred vsemi vrstami raka, to še posebej drži za raka prostate, črevesja in pljuč. Jean Carper je v knjigi Miracle Cures, označila dr. Clarkovo odkritje kot “nepredstavljivo pomembna raziskava o raku”, ki je “premaknila sprejemanje uporabe prehranskih dopolnil kot pomoč pri zdravljenju raka kar za nekaj korakov naprej”. Selen je deležen velike pozornosti ravno zaradi svoje morebitne vloge pri premagovanju raka. Z raziskavama na univerzi Cornell in na univerzi Arizona (37) so ugotovili, da je jemanje 200 mikrogramov selena na dan zmanjšalo število primerov raka prostate za 63 odstotkov, raka črevesja za 58 odstotkov, pljučnega raka za 46 odstotkov ter vseh smrti zaradi raka za 39 odstotkov. Druge raziskave so potrdile, da selen lahko pomaga preprečevati raka jajčnikov, materničnega vratu, danke, mehurja, požiralnika, trebušne slinavke, jeter in tudi levkemijo. Preučevanja rakavih bolnikov kažejo, da se je pri tistih z nizkimi koncentracijami selena v krvi razvilo več tumorjev in se jim je bolezen prej ponovila kot pri tistih z višjimi koncentracijami.
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