Femix research

Oral contraceptives and changes in nutritional requirements.

M. PALMERY, A. SARACENO1, A. VAIARELLI 2, G. CARLOMAGNO1

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

2013; 17: 1804-1813



VITAMIN B9 (FOLNA KISLINA):

  • CASTREN OM, ROSSI RR. Effect of oral contraceptives on serum folic acid content. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1970; 77: 548-550.
  • GREEN TJ, HOUGHTON LA, DONOVAN U, GIBSON RS, O’CONNOR DL. Oral contraceptives did not affect biochemical folate indexes and homocysteine concentrations in adolescent females. J Am Diet Assoc 1998; 98: 49-55.
  • MANZOOR M, RUNCIE J. Folate-responsive neuropathy: report of 10 cases. Br Med J 1976; 1: 1176- 1178.
  • MOSLEY BS, CLEVES MA, SIEGA-RIZ AM, SHAW GM, CANFIELD MA, WALLER DK, WERLER MM, HOBBS CA. Neural tube defects and maternal folate intake among pregnancies conceived after folic acid fortification in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 2009; 169: 9-17.
  • PATON A. Oral contraceptives and folate deficiency. Lancet 1969; 1: 418.
  • PRASAD AS, LEI KY, MOGHISSI KS, STRYKER JC, OBERLEAS D. Effect of oral contraceptives on nutrients. III. Vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976; 125: 1063-1069.
  • PRITCHARD JA, SCOTT DE, WHALLEY PJ. Maternal folate deficiency and pregnancy wastage. IV. Effects of folic acid supplements, anticonvulsants, and oral contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1971; 109: 341-346.
  • RYSER JE, FARQUET JJ, PETITE J. Megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency in a young woman on oral contraceptives. Acta Haematol 1971; 45: 319-324.
  • SCOTT JM, WEIR DG. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease. Quarterly J Med 1996: 561-563.
  • SHAW GM, LAMMER EJ, WASSERMAN CR, O'MALLEY CD, TOLAROVA MM. Risks of orofacial clefts in children born to women using multivitamins containing folic acid periconceptionally. Lancet 1995; 346: 393-396.
  • SHOJANIA AM. Oral contraceptives: effect of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism. Can Med Assoc J 1982; 126: 244-247.
  • SHOJANIA AM, HORNADY G, BARNES PH. Oral contraceptives and serum-folate level. Lancet 1968; 1: 1376-1377.
  • TROWBRIDGE M, JR., WADSWORTH RC, MOFFITT E. Malabsorption associated with gluten enteropathy, do oral contraceptives interfere with folate metabolism? J Maine Med Assoc 1968; 59: 240-242.
  • WALD NJ, WATT HC, LAW MR, WEIR DG, MCPARTLIN J, SCOTT JM. Homocysteine and ischemic heart disease: results of a prospective study with implications regarding prevention. Arch Intern Med 1998; 158: 862-867.
  • WALD NJ, BOWER C. Folic acid and the prevention of neural tube defects. Br Med J 1995; 310: 1019-1020.
  • WALD NJ, GILBERTSON MP. Folic acid in prevention of neural tube defects. Lancet 1995; 345: 389.
  • WERTALIK LF, METZ EN, LOBUGLIO AF, BALCERZAK SP. Decreased serum B 12 levels with oral contraceptive use. JAMA 1972; 221: 1371-1374.
  • WILSON SM, BIVINS BN, RUSSELL KA, BAILEY LB. Oral contraceptive use: impact on folate, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(1)(2) status. Nutr Rev 2011; 69: 572-583.
  • WHITEHEAD N, REYNER F, LINDENBAUM J. Megaloblastic changes in the cervical epithelium. Association with oral contraceptive therapy and reversal with folic acid. JAMA 1973; 226: 1421-1424. 
  • WHO. World Health Organization: Vitamin and mineral requirements in Human nutrition. WHO Library; 1998.

VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN):

  • BAMJI MS, PREMA K, JACOB CM, RANI M, SAMYUKTA D. Vitamin supplements to Indian women using low dosage oral contraceptives. Contraception 1985; 32: 405-416.
  • BRIGGS M. Letter: Oral contraceptives and vitamin nutrition. Lancet 1974; 1: 1234-1235.
  • BRODY T. Riboflavin. ed. N. Biochemistry. San Diego. Academic Press; 1999.
  • NEWMAN LJ, LOPEZ R, COLE HS, BORIA MC, COOPERMAN JM. Riboflavin deficiency in women taking oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr 1978; 31: 247-249.
  • SANPITAK N, Chayutimonkul L. Oral contraceptives and riboflavine nutrition. Lancet 1974; 1: 836-837.
  • THORP VJ. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on vitamin and mineral requirements. J Am Diet Assoc 1980; 76: 581-584.
  • ZENCIRCI B. Comparison of the effects of dietary factors in the management and prophylaxis of migraine. J Pain Res 2010; 3: 125-130.

VITAMIN B6:

  • AYCOCK JE, KIRKSEY A. Influence of different levels of dietary pyridoxine on certain parameters of developing and mature brains in rats. J Nutr 1976; 106: 680-688.
  • CANDITO M, RIVET R, HERBETH B, BOISSON C, RUDIGOZ RC, LUTON D, JOURNEL H, OURY JF, ROUX F, SAURA R, VERNHET I, GAUCHERAND P, MULLER F, GUIDICELLI B, HECKENROTH H, POULAIN P, BLAYAU M, FRANCANNET C, ROSZYK L, BRUSTIE C, STACCINI P, GERARD P, FILLIONEMERY N, GUEANT-RODRIGUEZ RM, VAN OBBERGHEN E, GUEANT JL. Nutritional and genetic determinants of vitamin B and homocysteine metabolisms in neural tube defects: a multicenter case-control study. Am J Med Genet A 2008; 146A: 1128-1133.
  • CATTANEO M, LOMBARDI R, LECCHI A, BUCCIARELLI P, MANNUCCI PM. Low plasma levels of vitamin B(6) are independently associated with a heightened risk of deep-vein thrombosis. Circulation 2001; 104: 2442-2446.
  • KIRKSEY A, MORRE DM, WASYNCZUK AZ. Neuronal development in vitamin B6 deficiency. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1990; 585: 202-218.
  • LEKLEM JE, BROWN RR, ROSE DP, LINKSWILER HM. Vitamin B6 requirements of women using oral contraceptives. Am J Clin Nutr 1975; 28: 535-541.
  • LEKLEM JE. Vitamin B-6 requirement and oral contraceptive use--a concern? J Nutr 1986; 116: 475- 477
  • LUMENG L, CLEARY RE, LI TK. Effect of oral contraceptives on the plasma concentration of pyridoxal phosphate. Am J Clin Nutr 1974; 27: 326-333.
  • LUSSANA F, ZIGHETTI ML, BUCCIARELLI P, CUGNO M, CATTANEO M. Blood levels of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B6 and B12 in women using oral contraceptives compared to non-users. Thromb Res 2003; 112: 37-41.
  • MACKEY A, DAVIS S, GREGORY J. Vitamin B6. X ed. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. M. Shils, Shike M, Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R, Eds. Baltimore, MD. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.
  • MORRIS MS, PICCIANO MF, JACQUES PF, SELHUB J. Plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in the US population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 87: 1446-1454.
  • ROBINSON K, MAYER EL, MILLER DP, GREEN R, VAN LENTE F, GUPTA A, KOTTKE-MARCHANT K, SAVON SR, SELHUB J, NISSEN SE, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia and low pyridoxal phosphate. Common and independent reversible risk factors for coronary artery disease. Circulation 1995; 92: 2825-2830.
  • RONNENBERG AG, VENNERS SA, XU X, CHEN C, WANG L, GUANG W, HUANG A, WANG X. Preconception Bvitamin and homocysteine status, conception, and early pregnancy loss. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 304-312.
  • RONNENBERG AG, GOLDMAN MB, CHEN D, AITKEN IW, WILLETT WC, SELHUB J, XU X. Preconception folate and vitamin B(6) status and clinical spontaneous abortion in Chinese women. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100: 107-113.
  • ROSE DP. The influence of oestrogens on tryptophan metabolism in man. Clin Sci 1966; 31: 265- 272.
  • WASYNCZUK A, KIRKSEY A, MORRE DM. Effects of maternal vitamin B-6 deficiency on specific regions of developing rat brain: the extrapyramidal motor system. J Nutr 1983; 113: 746-754. 43)
  • WASYNCZUK A, KIRKSEY A, MORRE DM. Effect of maternal vitamin B-6 deficiency on specific regions of developing rat brain: amino acid metabolism. J Nutr 1983; 113: 735-745.

VITAMIN B12:

  • RIEDEL B, BJORKE MONSEN AL, UELAND PM, SCHNEEDE J. Effects of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy on markers of cobalamin status. Clin Chem 2005; 51: 778-781.
  • SHOJANIA AM, WYLIE B. The effect of oral contraceptives on vitamin B12 metabolism. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1979; 135: 129-134.
  • SUTTERLIN MW, BUSSEN SS, RIEGER L, DIETL J, STECK T. Serum folate and Vitamin B12 levels in women using modern oral contraceptives (OC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003; 107: 57-61.
  • VENINGA KS. Effects of oral contraceptives on vitamins B6, B12, C, and folacin. J Nurse Midwifery 1984; 29: 386-390.

VITAMIN C:

  • FISCHER H, SCHWARZER C, ILLEK B. Vitamin C controls the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004; 101: 3691-3696.
  • HUDIBURGH NK, MILNER AN. Influence of oral contraceptives on ascorbic acid and triglyceride status. J Am Diet Assoc 1979; 75: 19-22.
  • MATSUI MS, ROZOVSKI SJ. Drug-nutrient interaction. Clin Ther 1982; 4: 423-440.
  • SCHELL DA, BODE AM. Measurement of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid in mammalian tissue utilizing HPLC and electrochemical detection. Biomed Chromatogr 1993; 7: 267-272.
  • WEBB JL. Nutritional effects of oral contraceptive use: a review. J Reprod Med 1980; 25: 150-156.
  • WHO. Advances in Methods on Fertility Regulation. World Health Organization, 1975.
  • ZAL F, MOSTAFAVI-POUR Z, AMINI F, HEIDARI A. Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on lipid peroxidation and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzyme status in the blood of women consuming oral contraceptives. Contraception 2012; 86: 62-66.

CINK:

  • AKINLOYE O, ADEBAYO TO, OGUNTIBEJU OO, OPARINDE DP, OGUNYEMI EO. Effects of contraceptives on serum trace elements, calcium and phosphorus levels. West Indian Med J 2011; 60: 308-315.
  • BRIGGS MH, BRIGGS M, AUSTIN J. Effects of steroid pharmaceuticals on plasma zinc. Nature 1971; 232: 480-481.
  • FALLAH S, SANI FV, FIROOZRAI M. Effect of contraceptive pill on the selenium and zinc status of healthy subjects. Contraception 2009; 80: 40-43.
  • HALSTED JA, HACKLEY BM, SMITH JC, JR. Plasma-zinc and copper in pregnancy and after oral contraceptives. Lancet 1968; 2: 278-279.
  • HAMBIDGE KM, KREBS NF. Zinc deficiency: a special challenge. J Nutr 2007; 137: 1101-1105. 76
  • KING JC. Do women using oral contraceptive agents require extra zinc? J Nutr 1987; 117: 217- 219.
  • NAKASHIMA AS, DYCK RH. Zinc and cortical plasticity. Brain Res Rev 2009; 59: 347-373.
  • PRASAD AS, OBERLEAS D, MOGHISSI KS, LEI KY, STRYKER JC. Effect of oral contraceptive agents on nutrients: I. Minerals. Am J Clin Nutr 1975; 28: 377-384.
  • PREMA K, RAMALAKSHMI BA, BABU S. Serum copper and zinc in hormonal contraceptive users. Fertil Steril 1980; 33: 267-271.
  • WAPNIR RA. Protein Nutrition and Mineral Absorption. Boca Raton, Florida. CRC Press; 1990. 78

SELEN:

  • CANN SA, VAN NETTEN JP, VAN NETTEN C. Hypothesis: iodine, selenium and the development of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 121- 127.
  • HEESE HD, LAWRENCE MA, DEMPSTER WS, POCOCK F. Reference concentrations of serum selenium and manganese in healthy nulliparas. S Afr Med J 1988; 73: 163-165.
  • KNEKT P, MARNIEMI J, TEPPO L, HELIOVAARA M, AROMAA A. Is low selenium status a risk factor for lung cancer? Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 975-982.
  • MAZOKOPAKIS EE, PAPADAKIS JA, PAPADOMANOLAKI MG, BATISTAKIS AG, GIANNAKOPOULOS TG, PROTOPAPADAKIS EE, GANOTAKIS ES. Effects of 12 months treatment with L-selenomethionine on serum anti-TPO Levels in Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid 2007; 17: 609-612.
  • REJALI L, JAAFAR MH, ISMAIL NH. Serum selenium level and other risk factors for breast cancer among patients in a Malaysian hospital. Environ Health Prev Med 2007; 12: 105-110.
  • RUSSO MW, MURRAY SC, WURZELMANN JI, WOOSLEY JT, SANDLER RS. Plasma selenium levels and the risk of colorectal adenomas. Nutr Cancer 1997; 28: 125- 129.